Capitalization for Emphasis Is a Bad Idea

Capitalization for Emphasis

Capitalization for emphasis is bad form.

We’ve seen random capitalization on the streets. It’s usually a crude attempt to capitalize for emphasis. Not a good idea. Stick with title case or sentence case.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Hear hear vs. here here


hear hear!

and not

here here!




Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

The Correct Punctuation of Donald Trump, Jr.,’s Name

The Correct Punctuation of Donald Trump, Jr.,’s Name:


Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment


Please check out a video from Kory Stamper, a lexicographer for Merriam-Webster. This means that she is a writer and editor of dictionaries.

And check out her book, Word by Word: The Secret Life of Dictionaries


Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Yes and No

People are often confused about how to punctuate occurrences of yes and no.

The answer, according to The Chicago Manual of Style is simple: yes and no

So it is:

She said yes.

and NOT:

She said, “Yes.”

Notice there is no capitalization of the word yes.

The same is true of no.

so was have:

I say no.

and NOT:

I say, “N0.”


Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Thank You vs. Thank-You

It can be confusing to know when and when not to use a hyphen with thank you.

Thank-you is the noun form:

— I sent my brother a thank-you.
— Be sure to follow up with a thank-you.

Thank-you is also the adjective form

— She sent the teacher a thank-you note.
— A thank-you gift will be welcomed.

In verb form, use thank you.

— I thank you for your kindness
— Thank you for being there for me.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Movies, Television and Radio Titles

8.196  What to Italicize.  Titles of movies and of television and radio programs are italicized.  A single episode in a television series is set in roman and enclosed  in quotation marks.

the classic movie Gone with the Wind

The Godfather II

PBS’s Sesame Street

WFMT’s From the Recording Horn

“Casualties, ” an episode in the Fortunes of  War, a Masterpiece Theater series


the ten o’clock news

Formal names of broadcast networks, channels, and the like are set in roman.

Voice of America

the Discovery Channel

The Sundance and Disney channels

8.197  Analogy to print.   Any work available on the Internet or as a CD-ROM (or part of a CD-ROM), whether or not it also exists in print for, is treated in the same way as the works described in 8.164-95.  In other words, periodicals or complete works are italicized; articles or sections of work are set in roman and, where appropriate, enclosed in quotation marks.  For citing electronic works (including such works such a databases ir DVDs) in notes or bibliographies, see chapter 17.

8.198  On line Sources.  Works available on line are treated much the same as printed matter:  books or book-length works are italicized; articles, poems, short stories, and the like are set in roman and enclosed in quotation marks.  For citing online material, see chapter 17.

An excerpt from Albert Borgemann’s 1999 book  Holding on to Reality can be found on the University of Chicago Press Web site.

For help with style matters, visit the regularly updated feature “The Chicago Manual of Style” Q&A on our Website.

8.199  Web sites.  Web sites, if titled, should be set in roman, headline style, without quotation marks.  For typographic treatment of URLs, see 6.17, 6.82, 6.110,6.119, 7.44.

8.200  Electronic files.   File names may be italicized or set in roman, capitalized or lowercased        79.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Punctuating Unpublished Works

8.195  Written Works.  Titles of unpublished works–theses, dissertations, manuscripts in collections, printouts of speeches, and so on–are set in roman type, capitalized as titles, and enclosed in quotation marks.  Names of manuscript collections take no quotation marks.  The title of a not-yet-published book that is under contract may be italicised, but the word forth-coming (or in press or some other equivalent term), in parentheses, must follow the title. For speeches see 8.82.  See also 17.122.

In a masters thesis, “Charles Valentin Alkan and His Pianoforte Works,”…

“A Canal Boat Journey, 1857,” an anonymous manuscript in the Library of Congress Manuscript Division, describes…

Letters and other material may be found in the Collis P. Huntington  Papers at the George Arents Library of Syracuse University.

Giangreco’s Third Millenium (forthcoming) continues this line of research.

From The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Edition

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Poems and Plays

8.191  Titles of Poems.  Quoted titles of most poems are set in roman type and enclosed by parentheses.  A very long poetic work, especially one constituting a book, is italicised and not enclosed in quotation marks.

Robert Frost’s poem “The Housekeeper” in his collection A Boy’s Will.

In literary studies where many poems, short and long, are mentioned it is usually better to set all their titles in italics.

8.192  First lines.  Poems referred to by first line rather than by title are capitalized sentence style (but according to the capitalization used in the poem itself).  See also 18.149.

“Shall I compare thee to a Summer’s day?”

8,193    Titles of plays.  Quoted titles of plays, regardless of the length of the play are italicised.

Shaw’s Arms and the Man, in volume 2 of his Plays: Pleasant and Unpleasant

8.194  Divisions of plays or poems.  Words denoting parts of long poems or acts and scenes of plays are usually lowercased, neither italicised nor enclosed quotation marks.

canto 2                                       stanza 5                                    act 3, scene 2

From:  The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Edition


































The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Edition

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment

Articles in Periodicals and Parts of a Book

8.187  Articles.  Quoted titles of articles and features in periodicals and newspapers, chapters and part titles, titles of short stories or essays, and individual selections in books are set in roman type and enclosed in quotation marks.  (If there are quotation marks in the original title, single quotation  marks must be used, as in the fourth example.)

John S. Ellis’s article “Reconciling the Celt ,” appeared in the Journal of British Studies.

In chapter 3 of The Footnote, “How the Historian Found His Muse,” Anthony Grafton…

“Tom Outland’s Story,” by Willa Cather, …

The article “Schiller’s ‘Ode to Joy’ in Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony received unexpected attention.

8.188  Collected works.  When two or more works, originally published as separate books, are included in a single volume, often as part of an author’s collected works, they are best italicized when quotedl

The editor’s introduction to the Critique of Pure Reason in Kant’s Collected Works,…

8.189  Parts of a book.  Such generic terms as foreword, preface, acknowledges, introduction, appendix, bibliography, glossary and index, whether used in cross-references or in reference to another work, are lowercased and set in roman type.

The author states in her preface that…

For further documentation, see the appendix.

Full details are given in the bibliography.

The book contains a glossary, a subject index, and an index of names.

8,190  Numbered chapters, parts and so on.  The words chapter, part, appendix, table, figure and the like are lowercased and spelled out in text (though sometimes abbreviated in parenthetical references).  Numbers are given in arabic numerals, regardless of how they appear in the original.  If letters are used, they may  be upper- or lower case and are sometimes put in parentheses.  See also 9.30-31.
This matter is discussed in chapter 4 and 5.

The latin text appears in appendix B.

The range is presented numerically in table 4.2 and diagrammed in figure 4.1.

These connections are illustrated in table A3.

Turn to section 5(a) for further examples.

From The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Edition

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment