The Correct Punctuation of Donald Trump, Jr.,’s Name

The Correct Punctuation of Donald Trump, Jr.,’s Name:


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Please check out a video from Kory Stamper, a lexicographer for Merriam-Webster. This means that she is a writer and editor of dictionaries.

And check out her book, Word by Word: The Secret Life of Dictionaries


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Yes and No

People are often confused about how to punctuate occurrences of yes and no.

The answer, according to The Chicago Manual of Style is simple: yes and no

So it is:

She said yes.

and NOT:

She said, “Yes.”

Notice there is no capitalization of the word yes.

The same is true of no.

so was have:

I say no.

and NOT:

I say, “N0.”


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Thank You vs. Thank-You

It can be confusing to know when and when not to use a hyphen with thank you.

Thank-you is the noun form:

— I sent my brother a thank-you.
— Be sure to follow up with a thank-you.

Thank-you is also the adjective form

— She sent the teacher a thank-you note.
— A thank-you gift will be welcomed.

In verb form, use thank you.

— I thank you for your kindness
— Thank you for being there for me.

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Movies, Television and Radio Titles

8.196  What to Italicize.  Titles of movies and of television and radio programs are italicized.  A single episode in a television series is set in roman and enclosed  in quotation marks.

the classic movie Gone with the Wind

The Godfather II

PBS’s Sesame Street

WFMT’s From the Recording Horn

“Casualties, ” an episode in the Fortunes of  War, a Masterpiece Theater series


the ten o’clock news

Formal names of broadcast networks, channels, and the like are set in roman.

Voice of America

the Discovery Channel

The Sundance and Disney channels

8.197  Analogy to print.   Any work available on the Internet or as a CD-ROM (or part of a CD-ROM), whether or not it also exists in print for, is treated in the same way as the works described in 8.164-95.  In other words, periodicals or complete works are italicized; articles or sections of work are set in roman and, where appropriate, enclosed in quotation marks.  For citing electronic works (including such works such a databases ir DVDs) in notes or bibliographies, see chapter 17.

8.198  On line Sources.  Works available on line are treated much the same as printed matter:  books or book-length works are italicized; articles, poems, short stories, and the like are set in roman and enclosed in quotation marks.  For citing online material, see chapter 17.

An excerpt from Albert Borgemann’s 1999 book  Holding on to Reality can be found on the University of Chicago Press Web site.

For help with style matters, visit the regularly updated feature “The Chicago Manual of Style” Q&A on our Website.

8.199  Web sites.  Web sites, if titled, should be set in roman, headline style, without quotation marks.  For typographic treatment of URLs, see 6.17, 6.82, 6.110,6.119, 7.44.

8.200  Electronic files.   File names may be italicized or set in roman, capitalized or lowercased        79.

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Punctuating Unpublished Works

8.195  Written Works.  Titles of unpublished works–theses, dissertations, manuscripts in collections, printouts of speeches, and so on–are set in roman type, capitalized as titles, and enclosed in quotation marks.  Names of manuscript collections take no quotation marks.  The title of a not-yet-published book that is under contract may be italicised, but the word forth-coming (or in press or some other equivalent term), in parentheses, must follow the title. For speeches see 8.82.  See also 17.122.

In a masters thesis, “Charles Valentin Alkan and His Pianoforte Works,”…

“A Canal Boat Journey, 1857,” an anonymous manuscript in the Library of Congress Manuscript Division, describes…

Letters and other material may be found in the Collis P. Huntington  Papers at the George Arents Library of Syracuse University.

Giangreco’s Third Millenium (forthcoming) continues this line of research.

From The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Edition

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Poems and Plays

8.191  Titles of Poems.  Quoted titles of most poems are set in roman type and enclosed by parentheses.  A very long poetic work, especially one constituting a book, is italicised and not enclosed in quotation marks.

Robert Frost’s poem “The Housekeeper” in his collection A Boy’s Will.

In literary studies where many poems, short and long, are mentioned it is usually better to set all their titles in italics.

8.192  First lines.  Poems referred to by first line rather than by title are capitalized sentence style (but according to the capitalization used in the poem itself).  See also 18.149.

“Shall I compare thee to a Summer’s day?”

8,193    Titles of plays.  Quoted titles of plays, regardless of the length of the play are italicised.

Shaw’s Arms and the Man, in volume 2 of his Plays: Pleasant and Unpleasant

8.194  Divisions of plays or poems.  Words denoting parts of long poems or acts and scenes of plays are usually lowercased, neither italicised nor enclosed quotation marks.

canto 2                                       stanza 5                                    act 3, scene 2

From:  The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Edition


































The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Edition

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Articles in Periodicals and Parts of a Book

8.187  Articles.  Quoted titles of articles and features in periodicals and newspapers, chapters and part titles, titles of short stories or essays, and individual selections in books are set in roman type and enclosed in quotation marks.  (If there are quotation marks in the original title, single quotation  marks must be used, as in the fourth example.)

John S. Ellis’s article “Reconciling the Celt ,” appeared in the Journal of British Studies.

In chapter 3 of The Footnote, “How the Historian Found His Muse,” Anthony Grafton…

“Tom Outland’s Story,” by Willa Cather, …

The article “Schiller’s ‘Ode to Joy’ in Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony received unexpected attention.

8.188  Collected works.  When two or more works, originally published as separate books, are included in a single volume, often as part of an author’s collected works, they are best italicized when quotedl

The editor’s introduction to the Critique of Pure Reason in Kant’s Collected Works,…

8.189  Parts of a book.  Such generic terms as foreword, preface, acknowledges, introduction, appendix, bibliography, glossary and index, whether used in cross-references or in reference to another work, are lowercased and set in roman type.

The author states in her preface that…

For further documentation, see the appendix.

Full details are given in the bibliography.

The book contains a glossary, a subject index, and an index of names.

8,190  Numbered chapters, parts and so on.  The words chapter, part, appendix, table, figure and the like are lowercased and spelled out in text (though sometimes abbreviated in parenthetical references).  Numbers are given in arabic numerals, regardless of how they appear in the original.  If letters are used, they may  be upper- or lower case and are sometimes put in parentheses.  See also 9.30-31.
This matter is discussed in chapter 4 and 5.

The latin text appears in appendix B.

The range is presented numerically in table 4.2 and diagrammed in figure 4.1.

These connections are illustrated in table A3.

Turn to section 5(a) for further examples.

From The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Edition

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Titles of Works (Part 5)

Books and Periodicals

8.178  Freestanding publications.  Titles and subtitles of books, pamphlets, periodicals, newspapers, and sections of newspapers that are published separately in either print or electronic form are italicized when mentioned in text, notes, or biography.  In text and notes they are capitalized headline style (see 8.167), though sentence style may be used ina bibliography or reference list (see 8.166).

8.179  Full and shortened titles.  A title cited in full in the notes or bibliography may be shortened in the text.  A subtitle may be omitted or an initial a, an, or the may be dropped if it does not fit the surrounding syntax.  For short titles in notes, see 16.42.

Hawking, in A Brief Hostory of Time,  opens up the universe.

Hawking’s Brief History of Time explains black wholes with alarming lucidity.

That dreadful Old Curiosity Shop character, Quilp…


In The old Curiosity Shop, Dickens…

8.180  Initial “the” in periodical titles.  When newspapers and periodicals are mentioned in text, an initial the , even if part of the official title, is lowercased (unless it begins a sentence) and not italicized.  Foreign-llnguage titles, however, retain the article in the original language–but only if it is an official part of the title.  (For notes and bibliography, see 17.195-96.)

She reads the Chicago Tribune on the train.

We read Le Monde and Die Zeit while traveling in Europe.

Did you see the review in the Frankfurter Allgemeine?

8.181   What to italicize.  Only the official name of a periodical should be italicized.   Am added descriptive term is lowercased and set in roman.

She subscribes to Newsweek and the Economist.

I read it both in Time magazine and in the Washington Post.


His article was reprinted in the New York Times Magazine.

8.182  When not to italicize.  When the name of a newspaper or periodical is part of the name of a building, organization, prize, or the like, it is not italicized.

Los Angeles Times Book Award

Chicago Defender Charities

Tribune Tower

8.183  Titles as singular nouns.  A title, being a singular noun, always takes a singular verb.

Coconuts and Coquinas describes island life of Fort Myers Beach.

8.184  Terms within titles.  A term in a quoted title that is itself normally italicized such as a foreign word, a genus name, or the name of a ship, is set in roman type (“reverse italics”).  A title within a title, however, should remain in italics and be enclosed in quotation marks.  See also 8.175, 17.60.

From Tyrannosaurus rex to King Kong:  Large Creatures in Fact and Fiction

A Key to Whitehead’s “Process and Reality”

8.185  Title not interchangeable with subject.  The title of a work should not be used to stand for the subject of a work.

Dostoevsky wrote a book about crime and punishment.  (Not…about Crime and Punishment)

Edward Wasiolek’s book on Crime and Punishment is titled “Crime and Punishment” and the Critics.

In their book The Craft of Translation, Biguenet and Schulte…)

8.186  Series and editions.  Quoted titles of book series and editions are capitalized but not italicized.  The word series and edition are capitalized only if part of the title.

The Loeb Classics

a Modern Library edition

Late Editions:  Cultural Studies for the End of the Century

the Crime and Justice series

a book in the Heritage of Sociology Series

From The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Edition

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Titles of Works (Part 4)

8.171   Quotations as Titles.  When a quoted sentence, or at least a full clause, is used as a title, sentence-style capitalization is often appropriate.  A following subtitle–or, if the quotation is the subtitle, a preceding title–may be in headline style.

“We all live more like brutes than like humans”. Labor and Capital in the Gold Rush


My Kingdom for a Horse:  Memoirs of a Disappointed Car Owner’

8.172   Quoted titles: font and capitalization.  When quoted in text or listed in a bibliography, titles of books, journals, plays, and other freestanding works are italicized (see 8.178); titles of articles, chapters, and other shorter works are set in roman and enclosed in quotation marks (see 8.187).  Only initialisms or acronyms should be set in full capitals.  For foreign titles, see (10.3-7).

Many editors use The Chicago Manual of Style

Refer to the article titled “A Comparison of the MLA and the APA Style Manuals”

8.173   Subtitles.  A subtitle, whether in sentence-style or headline-style capitalization, always begins with a capital letter.  Although on a title page or in a chapter heading a subtitle is often distinguished from a title by a different typeface, when quoted in text or listed in bibliography it is separated from the title by a colon.  When an em dash rather than a colon is used, what follows the em dash is not normally considered to be a subtitle, and the first word is not necessarily capitalized.  See also 17.54.

“Manuals of Style:  Guidelines, Not Strangleholds” (heading style)

Tapetum character states:  Analytical keys (sentence style)


Chicago–a Good Town

8.174   Permissible changes in quoted titles.  When a title is quoted, its original spelling (including non-Latin letters such as π or ϒ), hyphenization, and punctuation should be preserved regardless of the style used in the surrounding text (but see 8.175).  Capitalization should also be preserved, except that words in full capitals on the original title page should be set in upper and lower case (see 8.172).  As a matter of editorial discretion, an ampersand (&) may be changed to and, or, more rarely a numeral may be spelled out.  See also 17.52.

8.175   Punctuation in quoted titles.  On title pages, where the title often appears in very large type, commas area sometimes omitted from the ends of lines.  When a title is quoted, such commas should be added.  (Serial commas need to be added only if it is clear that they are used in the work itself.)  A date at the end of a title or subtitle sometimes appears on a line by itself; when quoted, it should be preceded by a comma.  If title and subtitle on a title a page are distinguished by typeface, a colon must be added when the subtitle is quoted.  A dash in the original should be retained. (for two subtitles in the original. (see 17.54).  The following examples illustrate the way quoted titles and subtitles are normally punctuated and capitalized in running text, notes, and bibliographies using headline capitalization.  The first three are books, the fourth is an article.

Disease, Pain and Sacrifice:  Toward a Psychology of Suffering

Melodrama Unveiled:  American Theater and Culture, 1800-1850

Browning’s Roman Murder Story:  A Reading of “The Ring and the Book”

“Milton Freedman’s “Capitalism and Freedom—a Best Seller for Chicago”

For more on titles within titles (as in the third and fourth examples above, see 8.184, 8.187.)

8.176   Punctuation vis-à-vis surrounding text.  Since a title is a noun form, any punctuation within it should not affect punctuation of the surrounding text.  See also 6.43, 8.185.

8.177   Double titles.  Old-fashioned double titles (or titles and subtitles) connected by or are traditionally quoted as in the first example, less traditionally but more simply as in the second.  In both forms, the second title begins with a capital.  Either form is acceptable if used consistently.

England’s Monitor, or, The History of the Separation

England’s Monitor or The History of the Separation

From The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Edition


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